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Union Resistance to Return-To-Office (RTO) Policies in Businesses

By Anna Naveed


Human Resources Blog Library

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In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, the world of work experienced a seismic shift towards remote work. As vaccinations continue to roll out, many businesses are now considering a Return-To-Office (RTO) policy. This move has sparked robust resistance from different unions, arguing that these policies may infringe on workers' rights, reduce flexibility, and increase the risk of illness.

Unions have traditionally played a pivotal role in safeguarding the rights and interests of workers. In response to RTO policies, many are leveraging various strategies to resist these policies, including negotiation, legal action, strikes, and advocating for hybrid work models.


One common method unions use to resist RTO is through negotiation with management. Unions act as representatives of employees, providing a collective voice to express their concerns about returning to in-person work. Issues raised during negotiations often encompass health and safety concerns, including sanitization protocols and social distancing measures, as well as the logistics of commuting and childcare.

Many unions are advocating for a flexible approach to RTO, allowing workers to choose whether they want to work from home or in the office. They argue that flexibility can help employees maintain a healthier work-life balance and could even increase productivity.

Legal Action

When negotiations fail, unions may resort to legal action to protect their members' rights. This could involve challenging RTO policies based on potential violation of labor laws or workers' contractual rights. For example, if an employer fails to provide a safe working environment – as mandated by the Occupational Safety and Health Act in the U.S. – a union may take legal action.

Unions might also invoke laws related to disabilities and health conditions, such as the Americans with Disabilities Act. If an employee with a health condition that increases their risk from COVID-19 is forced to return to the office without reasonable accommodations, this could be grounds for legal action.

Strikes and Protests

Unions have a long history of using strikes and protests to effect change. In the context of RTO, unions may organize strikes or work stoppages to protest what they view as unsafe or unfair policies. This direct action can put pressure on businesses to reconsider their RTO policies or offer concessions to meet workers' demands.

Advocacy for Hybrid Models

Hybrid work models, which combine remote and in-office work, have gained popularity during the pandemic. Some unions are advocating for these models as a way to resist RTO. They argue that hybrid models offer the best of both worlds: they allow businesses to maintain a physical workspace and facilitate in-person collaboration, while also offering employees the flexibility and comfort of remote work.

Unions are pushing for businesses to adopt policies that allow employees to choose how many days they want to work from home and in the office. They suggest that such flexible arrangements can boost employee satisfaction, well-being, and productivity, while also allowing businesses to reduce office space and related costs.

Unions play a crucial role in protecting the rights and interests of workers. As businesses consider RTO policies in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, unions are leveraging a variety of strategies to resist these moves and advocate for their members' safety and well-being.

Businesses and unions must strive to find a balance that protects employees' health and rights while also maintaining productivity and operational efficiency. In many cases, this could involve a move towards flexible, hybrid work models that combine the benefits of both remote and in-person work.

As this situation continues to unfold, it is clear that the pandemic has permanently altered the landscape of work, and that businesses and unions alike will need to adapt to this new reality.

The Economic Implications of Union Resistance to Return-to-Office (RTO) Policies

The resistance of unions to Return-To-Office (RTO) policies and their push for more flexible working models have far-reaching economic implications. These impacts can be seen at the microeconomic level, affecting individual businesses, and at the macroeconomic level, influencing the overall economy.

Microeconomic Implications

On a microeconomic level, union resistance to RTO policies can impact businesses in various ways:

1. Operational Efficiency: Strikes and work stoppages can disrupt business operations, reducing productivity in the short term. However, if businesses can successfully negotiate flexible or hybrid working models, they may see an increase in long-term productivity due to improved employee satisfaction and work-life balance.

2. Legal Costs: If businesses face legal challenges from unions over RTO policies, they may incur substantial legal expenses. These costs could impact profitability and could be particularly challenging for small businesses with limited resources.

3. Office Space Requirements: A move towards more flexible or hybrid working models could reduce businesses' need for office space. This could result in significant cost savings, especially in cities where commercial real estate is expensive.

Macroeconomic Implications

On a macroeconomic level, the resistance to RTO policies can influence the broader economy in the following ways:

1. Employment Dynamics: Continued resistance to RTO may result in a shift in employment dynamics. If a significant number of workers refuse to return to the office, companies may be forced to reconsider their workplace policies, potentially leading to a larger, permanent remote workforce. This could impact industries tied to office work, such as commercial real estate, transportation, and food services.

2. Productivity: The impact on overall productivity is unclear. On one hand, businesses that effectively implement flexible working arrangements may see increased productivity. On the other hand, widespread strikes or work stoppages could temporarily decrease productivity.

3. Real Estate Markets: As companies reduce their office space requirements, the commercial real estate market could face significant challenges, leading to decreased demand and potentially lower property values. This could have a knock-on effect on local economies, particularly in cities with a high concentration of office buildings.

4. Consumption Patterns: With more people working from home, consumption patterns may shift. For example, we may see increased spending on home office equipment and home improvement, and decreased spending on commuting and dining out. This could impact various sectors of the economy, creating winners and losers.

5. Innovation and Entrepreneurship: The shift towards remote work could spur innovation, as businesses seek new tools and technologies to facilitate remote collaboration. It could also encourage entrepreneurship, as the flexibility of remote work allows more people to pursue their business ideas.


Union resistance to RTO policies is influencing the economy at both micro and macro levels. While this presents challenges for businesses and certain sectors of the economy, it also creates opportunities for innovation and cost savings. As the situation evolves, businesses, unions, and policymakers must work together to navigate these economic shifts and ensure the long-term health and stability of the economy.